The total area of Kyrgyzstan is 198,500 sq km (76,640 sq mi). The country is almost completely mountainous. More than half of Kyrgyzstan lies at an elevation higher than 2,500 m (8,200 ft), and only about one-eighth of the country is lower than 1,500 m (about 4,900 ft). Glaciers and permanent snowfields cover more than 3 percent of Kyrgyzstan's total land area. An underlying seismic belt causes frequent earthquakes.
Kyrgyzstan is located at the juncture of two great Central Asian mountain systems (the Tian-Shan and the Pamir). These two systems are geologically separated from each other in southern Kyrgyzstan, between the Alai Mountains of the Tian-Shan and the Trans-Alai Range (Qatorkuhi Pasi Oloy) of the Pamir. The Trans-Alai Range, which is the northernmost part of the Pamirs, forms part of Kyrgyzstan's southern border with Tajikistan. The main ridge of the Tian-Shan extends along Kyrgyzstan's eastern border with China, on a northeastern axis. Victory Peak (known as Pik Pobedy in Russian and Jenish Chokosu in Kyrgyz) is the highest peak in the Tian-Shan system at an elevation of 7,439 m (24,406 ft). Located on the Kyrgyz-China border in northeastern Kyrgyzstan, Victory Peak is also the highest point in Kyrgyzstan and the second highest peak in the former USSR. A series of mountain chains that are part of the Tian-Shan system, including the Alatau ranges, spur off into Kyrgyzstan. Most of these ranges run generally east to west, but the Fergana Mountains in the central portion of the country run southeast to northwest. The Fergana Valley in the west and the Chu Valley in the north are among the few significant lowland areas in Kyrgyzstan.
The climate of Kyrgyzstan is extremely diverse. In some regions it is sharply continental, in others it is close to marine. This is attributed to the existence of large lake Issyk-Kul and mountainous landscape. The largest part of Kyrgyzstan has a temperate climate, while in the South it is sub-tropical. Annual and daily temperatures are smoothed. There are signs of droughty. The seasons are clearly expressed. The length of a day in December 9 hours and in June 15 hours. Precipitation falls down more in mountains and temperatures there are lower than in valleys.
The non-frozen lake Issyk-Kul makes the temperatures milder in a vicinity of the lake. In winter it is 3°-5°C warmer than in other areas, while in summer there is no sweltered heat there. In January an average temperature ranges between -4 °C and -9 °C while in July it is from + 20 °C up to +27 °C in low mountainous regions and the Issyk-Kul. Absolute low temperatures of air drop in winter down -50°C on the Ak-Sai. Absolute high temperatures of air reach +43°C - +44°C in Chu Valley and in the South of Kyrgyzstan. An average wind velocity is small, 1-3m/sec, however the mountain landscape and availability of a large area of water of the Issyk-Kul cause numerous winds. Frequently alongside with alteration of day and night the wind direction also changes. Intrusion of cold air into the Issyk-Kul hollow is accompanied with a stormy wind the velocity of which sometimes mounted to 40km/h. In the valley areas of Kyrgyzstan a total amount of precipitation makes up 230-500 mm. In the mountainous areas it can reach 1500 mm. In warm seasons precipitation falls more than in a cold ones. The most cloudy sky can be observed in the end of winter and in the beginning of spring. A thunder storm is a frequent phenomenon. The largest number of thunder storms fall in June and July.
The Naryn River, Kyrgyzstan's largest river, originates in the mountains in the northeast and flows westward through the middle of the country. The Naryn then enters the Fergana Valley and crosses into Uzbekistan, where it joins with another river to form the Syr Darya, one of Central Asia's principal rivers. The Chu River, in northern Kyrgyzstan, flows northward into southern Kazakhstan. Yssyk-Kul, the largest lake in Kyrgyzstan and one of the largest mountain lakes in the world, is located at an altitude of 1,607 m (5,273 ft) above sea level in the northeastern portion of the country.
Variety of flora in Kyrgyzstan peculiar to high zone. Slopes, separating by the level of humidity, therefore provide opportunities to grow for different types of plants.
In north slopes spread heaths, meadow heaths, meadows, bushes and forests. In south slopes, because of dry climate absent forest zones and alpine meadows; here prevail half-deserts and deserts.
Flora of Kyrgyzstan counts more than 4500 kinds of higher plants. About 1600 kinds possess economic and practical value, including feeding 450 kinds, nectarous 300 kinds, ethereal 62 kinds, foody 50 kinds.
Found 200 kinds of medicinal plants: Thalictrum, karakol aconite, big elecampane, motherwort turkestanian, thermopsis, Hypericum perforatum, Tussilago farfara, Origanum majorana, sea-buckthorn, horsetail ephedra, cheremic Lobel, and others. As unique emergence in south of Kyrgyzstan we may say nuts fruit forests. Here grows Greece nuts, Sivers apple-tree, sogdian alycha, pear, Korjin pear, Tian-Shian cherry, barberry, almond, pistachio, hawthorn djungarian and turkestanian and other.
Most interesting plants of Kyrgyz Republic:
Craig Tulip (Tulipa greigii Regel)
Kaufman Tulip (Tulipa kaufmanniana Regel)
Kolpakov Tulip (Tulipa kolpakowskiana Regel)
Edelweiss (Leontopodium ochroleucum Beauverd)
Fir tree (Shrenk fir) (P. shrenkiana Fisch. Et Mey)
Semenov abies (Abies Semenovii)
Archa (I. Turkestanica Kom.)
The fauna is various enough and non-uniform by origin. The basis of fauna of region is made with the kinds typical for the central-Asian and Mediterranean regions. Here it is possible to find more than 500 kinds spinal, including 83 kinds of mammals, 368 kinds of birds, 28 kinds of reptiles, 3 kinds of amphibians, 75 kinds of fishes, 3000 kinds of insects. At height of 3400-3800 m meet a grey marmot, Ochotonidae, silvery Microtus. In summer on the Alpine meadows there is a brown bear, are concentrated the most part of a livestock arkhar, it is a lot of marmots, hares and mountain goats. Wolves are found also. On 3800-4000 m from mammals there are no constant inhabitants, but occasionally there are grey marmots, and silvery Microtus. Above a snow line on rocky ledges (up to height of 4,4 km) nest some kinds of birds: Phoenicurus erythrogaster and Alpine Fringilla. There are many other birds: the mountain goose, Tadorna ferruginea, Tetraogallus, the rocky pigeon, chough, the Alpine daw, Tichodroma muraria, greater lentil and a deserted bullfinch. At height about 4500 m there are mountain goats, from predators - a snow leopard. Rare kinds of animals such as arkhar, the bison, goat, Capreolus capreolus, a red deer, a bear, the deer, a lynx, a snow leopard, are brought in the Red book.
If you want imagine the Kyrgyz Republic, you should compare the following information:
The area of the Kyrgyz Republic is the same as the area of the South Dakota State(199 000km.), and a little bit bigger than the territory of England (130420 km.) and Welsh- (20770 km). Also, the territory of 3 Bayern can be placed onto the territory of Kyrgyzstan.
The population of the Kyrgyz Republic can be compared with the population of the state Missouri (5.5 ml.) or with the population of Finland (5.2 mln).
The Son-Kul lake which is situated 3016 m. above sea level can be compared with the Titicaca lake which is situated 3830 m above sea level.
According to the Constitution, the Kyrgyz Republic is a secular state - there is no state religion. Religious political parties are banned. However, religious institutions do have to be registered. Most of the Kyrgyz would claim to be Muslim - although their religion sits lightly on their shoulders, especially in the North. This may be because, as nomads, some of the traditions were more difficult to introduce and maintain than in settled communities - or simply a symptom of the easy going nature of the people. In the South of the country where there are more Uzbeks, religion is a stronger influence and visitors should be sensitive to local sensibilities - especially when visiting certain sites, or in the month of Ramadan, or when consuming alcohol. The type of religious can be as follows: Shamanism, Zoroasism, Buddhism, Christianity, Roman Catholicism, Islam, Judasim, Bahai.
Electricity Type: 230 V, 50 Hz. Plug Diagram (with two round pins): C, F
This plug is ungrounded and has two round pins.
History of Kyrgyzstan
The Kyrgyz, a Turkic-speaking people, constitute a slim majority of the multi-ethnic population of Kyrgyzstan. The constitution enshrines Kyrgyz as the country's state language, although Russian continues to be used widely. Kyrgyzstan became part of the Russian Empire in the late 1800s. In 1924 it was incorporated into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) as an autonomous region, and in 1936 its status was upgraded and it became one of the 15 constituent republics of the USSR, officially called the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR). The republic was also commonly known as Kirgizia under Soviet rule, and Russians continue to call it that today. Kyrgyzstan became independent from the USSR in 1991. In 1993 the republic ratified its first post-Soviet constitution.
January 1 - New Year
March 21 - Nouruz (Islamic New Year)
May 1 - Labor Day
May 5 - Constitution Day
May 9 - Victory Day
August 31 - Independence Day
December 2 - National Day
There are other religious holidays with varying dates:
National currency is the Som = 100 tyin. The Kyrgyz economy is basically cash based and the US dollar is the most widely used foreign currency (the Euro and other currencies are commonly accepted). There are exchanges in all cities and most towns. The general advice is to bring US dollars if possible (new notes, post-1995 if possible; clean and unblemished).
Higher denominations bring better exchange rates but must be in near-mint condition. Cash advances on major credit cards (VISA/MasterCard) are available in several banks in Bishkek with about a 4% commission. Many banks now operate Western Union Money Transfer services. Not all the banks accept travelers cheques, only some banks in Bishkek accept these cheques.
OVIR is an abbreviation, which stands for the Visa and Registration Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Kyrgyz law currently states that foreign visitors, including tourists, must register with OVIR within three working days of their arrival in the country.
However, the government issued an order (No. 213, dated 15/04/03) which decreed that citizens of EU countries, USA, Canada and Australia in the country for up to one month no longer need register.
List of countries whose citizens can get a Kyrgyz tourist visa up to one month at any Embassy or Consulate of Kyrgyzstan abroad without invitation (visa support) and are free from registration in OVIR upon arrival:
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Republic of Cyprus
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
United States of America
Kyrgyz Concept can provide assistance by supplying a letter of invitation (visa support) for you to obtain a Kyrgyz visa.
Kyrgyz visas can be obtained:
At the Kyrgyz Embassy or Consulate in the visitors home country before departure for the Kyrgyz Republic.
At the Consulate Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the airport of Bishkek upon arrival.
Citizens of 45 countries (*) can apply for a single-entry tourist visa up to one month in any country where there is a Kyrgyz Embassy or upon arrival to Kyrgyz Republic at the airport of Bishkek. The invitation is not necessary.
If there is no Kyrgyz Embassy in your country, a Kyrgyz visa can be obtained from the Embassy of Kazakhstan. This establishment will provide a visa only after receiving a letter of invitation sent to the Embassy by one of the registered travel companies of Kyrgyzstan.
Every foreign visitor (except citizens from countries listed below) should, upon arrival to Kyrgyz Republic, be registered in the local police department OVIR. Kyrgyz Concept can provide this service.
Kyrgyz Concept can also provide: - letters of invitation to obtain Uzbek, Kazakh, Turkmen, Russian and Chinese touris
visas to Kazakhstan, Russia, and China. (**) List of 16 countries whose citizens do not need a Kyrgyz visa to enter Kyrgyz Republic, but need registration in OVIR upon arrival:
5.Democratic People's Republic of Korea
9.Malaysia (up to one month)
11.Mongolia (up to three months)
14.Turkey (up to one month)
Owners of Service and Diplomatic passports of the following countries do not a need visa to enter Kyrgyz Republic (up to one month):
Owners of Diplomatic passports of the following countries do not need visa to enter Kyrgyz Republic:
10.Iran (up to one month)
20.United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland United States of America
According to the visa agreement between Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan most of the European citizens, Japanese and South Koreans can receive the visa to one of the countries and also enter with it into another. The agreement valid if
- within Issyk Kul, Talas and Chui regions in Kyrgyzstan and Almaty and Jambyl regions in Kazakhstan
- the visa should be double entry
- staying in on of the countries with visa to another one is not longer then 5 days.
VISA SUPPORT TO THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN
In accordance with legislation of the Republic of Uzbekistan all travelers are required to have a visa.
For citizenship of the following countries visa-free travel to the Republic of Uzbekistan is working:
- Russia Federation
- Kyrgyzstan (up to 60 days)
- North Ireland
do not need Letter of Invitation, but they could be requested to obtain Letter of invitation, if they are obtaining Uzbekistan Visa outside of their country of citizenship.
For citizens of the abovementioned countries the simplified procedure of the visa receipt, which allows tourist to apply to the Embassies or Consulates of the Republic of Uzbekistan directly.
Receipt of the visa to the Republic of Uzbekistan consists of two stages:
1. Receipt of the visa support (permission is given by MFA of the Republic of Uzbekistan).
2. Receipt of visa at the embassy or in Consulate of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
(Personal presence of the applicant is required!!!)
The following documents are necessary for applying of visa support:
1. Passport copy
2. Statement from work
3. Work place and position.
4. Filled application form.
In accordance with legislation of the Republic of Uzbekistan it is necessary for applicant to buy the accommodation for whole period of staying in the Republic of Uzbekistan and also two transfers to and from the airport.
VISA SUPPORT COSTS USD 30.00/ PER PERSON IN CASE THE TOURIST BUY THE ACCOMMODATION.
t: +996 312 90 32 32